The World of Physical Automotive Model Making
The Česana design centre is one of ŠKODA’s most secret workplaces. It is here that models of future cars or concepts for exhibitions are created. In the case of mass-produced models, the cars are actually created here years before they first appear in public. Once the modelers’ work on a particular car is done, the result remains secret for another two years or so.
Fans of automobile design will be familiar with the traditional clay models carmakers use to gradually develop the look of a car. These days, however, these clay models are enhanced with a number of inserted tailor-made components that bring the models closer to the real car in terms of appearance. In addition, cars’ interiors are developed in a similar way, with an even greater quantity of various parts.
As Martin Bogner, Head of Design modeling and Digitalization at SKODA AUTO says: “Physical models are still extremely important for us. The touch of the human hand is irreplaceable in this case. We use the models to fine-tune details that might escape our attention in the digital environment. Physical models are also still used when the top management are approving a car’s final design, both at ŠKODA and through Volkswagen Group.”
Clay and Cutting Tools
Physical model making at ŠKODA AUTO is headed by Vlastimil Pažout, who oversees the activities of three studios: exterior, interior and components. The exterior studio is the largest model building workplace – its hall can accommodate up to seven 1:1 scale models.
“When working on concepts for car shows and for future production cars, we do everything at 1:1 scale, because some details might not stand out at a smaller scale,” explains Vlastimil Pažout.
Visitors to the studio might be surprised by the large milling machines. These are part of the car’s transition from the digital world to the physical one. While modelers used to shape cars out of clay completely by hand, today the milling machine does the basic work. The basis of the model’s construction is a steel frame fitted with foam pieces, and a layer of clay is applied to this skeleton. This is heated to 50-60 °C in a special oven, making the clay very malleable and easy to bond. After cooling to normal room temperature, it hardens. This is also one of the reasons why models are not made entirely of clay. Besides being extremely heavy (they weigh several tons even so) and expensive, the clay could crack or even come off in chunks.
“After the base layer is applied, the machine cuts the clay into the basic shape that was prepared by digital modellers in collaboration with the designers,” says Vlastimil Pažout. Once the structure has been given the basic outline, the modelers’ work begins. Using scrapers, knives, trowels and other tools, they fine-tune the original lines, which are usually “a bit sharp” after the initial milling.
The result of their work is then scanned and converted into a 3D model that can be worked with further and used as a basis for further milling or design visualizations and digital presentations. In fact, several alternative designs are created for each car when developing the car’s appearance, and one of them is chosen for the final design path. “Model makers are artists and masters of their craft. Together with the designer, they basically sketch in clay, applying their artistic skill and experience. At the same time they have to be fully in sync with the designer,” says Vlastimil Pažout.
Like The Real Thing
Modelers in the exterior and interior studios work similarly in this respect. But modelers working on interiors make more use of the services of the components studio. The components studio prepares various parts to look like the real thing. For the exterior, these include radiator grilles, headlights, wheel rims and other similar details, but for the interior there are a lot more components.
“For the interior, you have to deal with the texture of many surfaces. For example, the slats of the air vents and other details would basically be indistinguishable from with the rest of the interior if they were only modelled from clay,” explains Vlastimil Pažout. Some parts, such as the control stalks under the steering wheel or the steering wheel itself, could not be made from clay at all. The inserted parts are made on 3D printers, for example, and then perfected and assembled by hand – it can be really finicky work. The parts are also painted in a dedicated paint shop. The exterior models also get either a paint job or are coated with a special film, so that from a distance the result looks like a real car.
When the design is perfected, a ‘hard model’ is created: this is a model that is no longer made of clay, but of solid materials that do not change shape over time. The production of these models is usually outsourced, based on the data and experience acquired when the clay model was made. “This is a model where everything looks almost like the real thing. The chrome must be chrome, the headlights work and the model is even drivable. It is the model ‘at the top of the pyramid’, the one we present within the Group, consult with other brands or show to selected partners,” says Vlastimil Pažout. The clay models usually go to a climate-controlled warehouse and are typically used when the given car’s appearance is due for modernization. After that, their life is usually over – they are not stored indefinitely.