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Wikipedia defines metrology as:

Metrology is the science of measurement and includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement.

Metrology is defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) as “the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology.” The ontology and international vocabulary of metrology (VIM) is maintained by the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM), a group made up of eight international organisations – BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML, and ILAC.[2]

Metrology is a broad field divided into three basic, overlapping activities:

  • Definition of internationally accepted units of measurement
  • Realisation of these units of measurement in practice
  • Application of chains of traceability linking measurements made in practice to reference standards

Metrology also has three basic subfields that all use the three basic activities to varying degrees:

  • Scientific or fundamental metrology
  • Applied, technical or industrial metrology
  • Legal metrology